Case studies in microbiology a personal approach answers

Microscopic Examination of Materials from Infected Sites 8. Biochemical Identification of Gram-Negative Bacteria Immunodiagnosis of Infectious Diseases Applications of Molecular Diagnostics Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Part 2: Laboratory Identification of Significant Isolates Staphylococci Aerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli Neisseria Species and Moraxella catarrhalis Enterobacteriaceae Vibrio, Aeromonas, and Campylobacter Species Nonfermenting and Miscellaneous Gram-Negative Bacilli Anaerobes of Clinical Importance The Spirochetes Chlamydia, Rickettsia, and Similar Organisms Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Medically Significant Fungi Diagnostic Parasitology Clinical Virology Agents of Bioterror and Forensic Microbiology Biofilms: Architects of Disease.

Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Infections In , the Education Board of ASM convened a task force of microbiology educators from a variety of institutions to develop a new set of guidelines for teaching undergraduate introductory microbiology. The final ASM Curriculum Guidelines are the result of input and consensus building from the microbiology educational community Merkel The content of the ASM Curriculum Guidelines is organized around the five core concepts presented in Vision and Change with an added core concept specific to microbiology: the impact of microorganisms.

The fundamental statements are purposefully broad so that educators can use them in different ways, depending on the nature of the course. The fundamental statements are refined for use in the classroom by writing learning outcomes for each class or unit.

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Examples of lower-order and higher-order learning outcomes and assessments from some ASM fundamental statements. Instructors should then design assessments to provide evidence that the stated learning outcomes are being met. An essential feature of assessment is that it should be purposefully aligned with the learning outcomes Tanner and Allen That is, assessments should match the cognitive level of the learning outcome it is meant to evaluate.


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The collection contains both lower- and higher-order thinking questions to help educators provide students with a range of challenges. In addition, ASM is working with two groups of educators who are developing concept inventories in general microbiology and in the health sciences. First introduced by the physics community Hestenes, Wells and Swackhamer , a concept inventory is a set of questions that are developed to assess how well students understand critical concepts in a given field D'Avanzo Concept inventories are subject to many rounds of testing with hundreds of students to ensure that they are reliable and valid.

Molecular Microbiology

They are written as multiple-choice questions, with the incorrect choices coming from student's previous responses to reflect common misconceptions. ASM also offers a number of resources to support the final step in Backward Design—planning instruction. The ASM MicrobeLibrary provides vetted and reviewed visual resources including images, videos and laboratory protocols for instructional use. Our hope is that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines, together with these resources, will help support educators interested in using a more student-centered approach to teaching microbiology Horak, Merkel and Chang a.

However, it is clear that educational resources alone are not enough to change how microbiology is taught. Respondents who had heard of the guidelines, but were not using them, indicated that lack of time, financial support, curriculum-related resources and training were the primary barriers to adopting the guidelines. While most faculty appear to know about the research-based teaching approaches, they also cite time as a limiting factor in implementing new techniques.

Continuing professional development can be very effective in helping faculty change how they teach Fahnert Our biggest challenge has been to ensure that educators understand that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are not just a list of topics for students to learn, but that they embrace a student-centered approach to teaching that is based upon learning outcomes and assessments. Our experience suggests that while most educators engage their students in some kind of active learning, faculty are not basing their instruction on learning outcomes or higher-order thinking skills i.

For over 20 years, this annual conference has been a vital resource for microbiology educators to learn about and practice current pedagogy. In addition, it has provided critical networking opportunities for educators to learn from peers, and provides continuity and support for those educators back at their home institutions.

The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning SoTL uses evidence-based research methods to assess the effectiveness of teaching and learning. SoTL can provide faculty who are interested in pedagogy an opportunity to engage in scholarly activities, such that teaching becomes their research. In support of SoTL, the Biology Scholars Program offers face-to-face and online hybrid workshops to faculty interested in conducting research on student learning. Faculty learn how to develop course assessments to monitor student learning and prepare and evaluate their research for publication.

Participants often publish their research in JMBE or similar peer-reviewed educational journals. Much effort has gone into reaching out to graduate students, post-docs and early career faculty, both to extend their teaching skills in microbiology and to help them build networks with other educators. The Science Teaching Fellows Program is a 5-month professional development program to help prepare doctoral-trained students and early-career faculty for science teaching positions at non-doctoral institutions.


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  6. The program combines in-depth webinars, pre- and post-webinar assignments, structured mentoring and a community of practice. ASM also offers a variety of career and educational workshops for young educators in the Profession of Microbiology track at the annual ASM Microbe conference.

    Future efforts will certainly include the development of more online resources and the use of social media. ASM has developed a set of online and hybrid courses on curriculum design, pedagogy and career development for faculty and future faculty, which will be available through the ASM Education Courses. While face-to-face professional development may be desirable, it is not always possible in this resource-limited environment.

    The use of social media and interactive platforms will allow real-time interactions across the globe. Future interactive models could take into consideration the diverse needs of international users by providing a variety of tools and instruction. Collections of videos, webinars and curricula material on CDs could be provided for those with limited Internet.

    Truly changing how we, the microbiology educational community, teach can be difficult, daunting and slow. In their perspective on how to teach effectively, Dolan and Collins recommend that instructors use available resources and talk to experienced colleagues. The goal of ASM is to provide both resources and a supporting network through a variety of professional development activities on evidence-based teaching in microbiology.

    Our hope is that at every workshop, every meeting and every online webinar, some microbiology educators will be moved to adopt a more active and more student-centered approach to teaching. These educators become the new scholars, helping to share what they know to train others. Thus, by providing guidelines, resources and support, the ASM hopes to help drive the upwelling of microbiology educational reform that is being carried forward by the future generations of microbiology educators.

    Thanks also to the ASM Education staff and volunteers who have made these resources possible. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. American Society for Microbiology resources in support of an evidence-based approach to teaching microbiology Susan M.

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    Oxford Academic. To determine whether completing case studies was more effective at increasing student perceptions of learning gains than completing textbook readings or participating in class discussions, perceptions of student learning gains for each were compared. The case study teaching method increases student perceptions of learning gains. B Improve your ability to communicate your knowledge of scientific concepts in writing? C Improve your ability to communicate your knowledge of scientific concepts orally?

    D Help you understand the connections between scientific concepts and other aspects of your everyday life? To elucidate the effectiveness of case studies at promoting learning gains related to specific course learning objectives compared with class discussions and textbook reading, students were asked how much each of these methods of content delivery specifically helped improve skills that were integral to fulfilling three main course objectives.

    Case Studies in Microbiology A Personal Approach 1st Edition

    The differences in learning gains associated with both written and oral communication were statistically significant when completion of case studies was compared with either participation in class discussion or completion of textbook readings. Compared with textbook reading, class discussions led to a statistically significant increase in oral but not written communication skills. To test the hypothesis that case studies produced specifically for this course by the instructor were more effective at promoting learning gains than topically relevant case studies published by authors not associated with this course, perceptions of learning gains were compared for each of the case studies.

    Therefore, it can be concluded that the effectiveness of case studies at promoting learning gains is not significantly affected by whether or not the course instructor authored the case study. Case studies positively affect student perceptions of learning gains about various biological topics. Finally, to determine whether performance on examination questions accurately predicts student perceptions of learning gains, mean scores on examination questions related to case studies were compared with reported perceptions of learning gains for those case studies Fig. The coefficient of determination R 2 value was 0.

    This correlation was independent of case study author. Perception of learning gains but not author of case study is positively correlated to score on related examination questions. Positive point differences indicate how much higher the mean scores on case study-related questions were than the mean scores on paired control questions.

    Black squares represent case studies produced by the instructor of the course; white squares represent case studies produced by unaffiliated instructors. R 2 value indicates the coefficient of determination. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that teaching with case studies produced by the instructor of a course is more effective at promoting learning gains than using case studies produced by unaffiliated instructors.

    Associated Data

    This study also tested the hypothesis that the case study teaching method is more effective than class discussions and textbook reading at promoting learning gains associated with four of the most commonly taught topics in undergraduate general biology courses: chemical bonds, osmosis and diffusion, mitosis and meiosis, and DNA structure and replication.

    In addition to assessing content-based learning gains, development of written and oral communication skills and the ability to connect scientific topics with real-world applications was also assessed, because these skills were overarching learning objectives of this course, and classroom activities related to both case studies and control lessons were designed to provide opportunities for students to develop these skills. Finally, data were analyzed to determine whether performance on examination questions is positively correlated to student perceptions of learning gains resulting from case study teaching.


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    Compared with equivalent control questions about topics of similar complexity taught using class discussions and textbook readings, all four case studies produced statistically significant increases in the mean score on examination questions Fig. This indicates that case studies are more effective than more commonly used, traditional methods of content delivery at promoting learning of a variety of core concepts covered in general biology courses.

    The finding that there was no statistical difference between case studies in terms of performance on examination questions suggests that case studies are equally effective at promoting learning of disparate topics in biology.

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    The observations that students did not perform significantly less well on the first case study presented chemical bonds compared with the other case studies and that performance on examination questions did not progressively increase with each successive case study suggests that the effectiveness of case studies is not directly related to the amount of experience students have using case studies.

    Furthermore, anecdotal evidence from previous semesters of this course suggests that, of the four topics addressed by cases in this study, DNA structure and function and osmosis and diffusion are the first and second most difficult for students to grasp. The lack of a statistical difference between case studies therefore suggests that the effectiveness of a case study at promoting learning gains is not directly proportional to the difficulty of the concept covered. However, the finding that use of the osmosis and diffusion case study resulted in the greatest increase in examination performance compared with control questions and also produced the highest student perceptions of learning gains is noteworthy and could be attributed to the fact that it was the only case study evaluated that included a hands-on experiment.

    Because the inclusion of a hands-on kinetic activity may synergistically enhance student engagement and learning and result in an even greater increase in learning gains than case studies that lack this type of activity, it is recommended that case studies that incorporate this type of activity be preferentially utilized.