Malaysian thesis proposal
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For example, if you are interested to research related to HR or Computer Science; we will deploy a PhD consultant who has education and experience in the same field. The consultant will ask you a few questions pertaining to your prior experience and region of your study. Once topic is finalised, a research scholar needs to prepare a skeleton format of research where the process or methodology of research and research objectives are to be mentioned. At ELK Consulting Malaysia, we have devised a unique consulting process to assist research scholars in completing research proposal.
The process helps them to identify the research objectives, do critical literature review, firm up the most suitable methodology and mention the expected outcome of this research. These three domains are empirically derived through factor analysis and further confirmed having the best fit for the observations. The HFLCAS was administered to English major and 66 non-English major students, whose responses were factor-analysed to test construct validity of the scale.
Next, reliability was assessed using the internal consistency method. The results of factor analysis support Horwitz et al. On the one hand, FLCAS had been designed on the basis of previous in-depth qualitative research, which solidified it as one of the most comprehensive and valid instruments that were available for measuring the situational anxiety directly associated to the specific context of the foreign language classroom.
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On the other hand, the scale had demonstrated satisfactory reliability coefficients with the first samples of population to which it had been administered. Their pilot study which aimed to confirm the reliability of the FLCAS as an instrument to measure potential sources of anxiety in language classrooms in Malaysian learning context. The four factor model is appropriate to measure the language learning of Japanese foreign language among Malaysian learner as the four factor model was proposed by Aida, whom is a Japanese.
Hence based on these studies, the researcher for this study has strongly decided and been positively confirmed to adopt FLCAS in her own study. Compared to the four factor model, the three factor model is chosen as fear of English class was not brought up as an important issue in this study. Language Anxiety Coping Strategies Marwan has conducted a research on the types of anxiety experienced by Indonesian FL learners and the strategies they use to cope with their anxiety. The findings revealed that the majority of students, despite their gender and level differences, experienced some kinds of FL anxiety and many of them also applied particular strategies to overcome their FL anxiety.
Variables related to foreign language learning anxiety can be divided into two main categories which are situational variables and learner variables. Findings indicated that anxiety was most often associated with the output and processing stages, specifically in the sense of mental planning of the learning process and that students attributed the cause of anxiety to the teacher or other people. Other findings were that the effect of and response to anxiety were associated with gender and perceived ability level.
Sixty 60 students from International Islamic University Chittagong IIUC in Bangladesh contributed a result that their moderate level of anxiety that hinders their learning. Interventions suggested from the article to reduce foreign language speaking anxiety are project work, establishing a learning community and a supportive classroom atmosphere, teacher-students relations, providing indirect, rather than direct correction, accepting the need for self-worth protection, teacher immediacy and provision of praise.
Tanveer has attempted to investigate the factors that language anxiety can possibly stem from, both within the classroom environment and out of classroom in the wider social context, and has recommended a variety of strategies to cope with it. This study used a qualitative semi- structured interview format and focus-group discussion technique to investigate the issue. Summary There has been abundant of language researches in the past which focused on the issue of foreign language anxiety.
This chapter reviewed the concept of language anxiety and the researches made by local researchers on this matter. According to this chapter, language anxiety is categorized into specific anxiety reactions and useful to be related with its three performance anxieties which are communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation.
Furthermore, language researches have dwelled on the three selected potential learner variable namely gender, language achievement and speaking skill with language anxiety, are reviewed in this chapter. The correlation of language anxiety and those three potential predictors of learner variable are discussed in this chapter.
Moreover, the discussion on the instruments used for studying second language anxiety are included. In addition, this chapter also reviewed on some researches that provide suggestions for coping second language anxiety. Finally, ample language researches on the interrelationships of gender, language achievement and speaking skill with language anxiety are reviewed in this chapter.
Introduction This study was designed primarily to investigate the associations of learner variables with second language anxiety, and to examine the level of second language anxiety among students. The target population of this study was diploma students enrolled in various courses in MARA University of Technology, Kota Samarahan 2 campus as well as the English lecturers at the same campus. Convenience sampling was adopted to recruit participants.
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This chapter explains the research procedures of this study, including research design, participants, instruments, data collection procedures, and data analysis. Research Approach The design of this study was primarily quantitative in nature. According to Fraenkel, Wallen and Hyun , quantitative researchers usually base their work on the belief that facts and feelings can be separated, that the world is a single reality made up of facts that can be discovered. When it comes to the purpose of research, quantitative researches seek to establish relationships between variables and look for and sometimes explain the causes of such relationships.
Quantitative research has established widely agreed on general formulations of steps that guide researchers in their work. Quantitative research designs tend to be pre-established. The ideal researcher role in quantitative research is that of a detached observer. The ideal study in the quantitative tradition is the experiment.
Lastly, most quantitative researchers want to establish generalizations that surpass the immediate situation or particular setting. This type of research can help to make more intelligent predictions. Correlational research seeks to investigate the extent to which one or more relationships of some type exist.
The approach requires no manipulation or intervention on the part of the researcher other than administering the instrument s necessary to collect the data sought after. Generally, the researcher of this study embark on this type of research to look for and describe relationship that may exist among naturally occurring phenomena, without trying in any way to modify these phenomena. This study utilizes a correlational research design as it seeks to investigate the degree of relationship between learner variables such as gender, language achievement and speaking skill; and language anxiety, and uses the results of the observed relationships to make predictions about the nature of the relationship between the two.
Data Collection 3. Sampling Many times it is extremely difficult or sometimes even impossible to select either a random or a systematic non-random sample. Hence, in this type of situation, the researcher is using convenience sampling for this study.
This number of participants is chosen in order to get the similar accuracy with the past research on foreign language anxiety done by Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope , whereby they use students. The students were not restricted into which semester they studied because it will be interesting to investigate the level of anxiety according to different semesters. Their English language proficiency level assumed to range from intermediate to upper intermediate. In order to give a comprehensive suggestions on the strategies that can help students to cope with language anxiety, the questionnaire of 6 open- ended questions will be distributed among 10 English lecturers from the same institution.
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The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale has been widely used across time on various groups of respondents. However, the response in communication apprehension subscale is given highlight by means of it represents one of the learner variables as the predictors of second language anxiety. Gender The background information questionnaire will give a brief introduction to the study and provide instructions for the students to complete the survey.
The background information questionnaire indicated that all responses of the student participants will be completely anonymous. It was designed to obtain demographic information about their backgrounds and English language learning experiences. The demographic information included gender, age, native language, language proficiency, English educational background, their opinion of the influence of language anxiety on language learning as well as the strategies they use to cope with language anxiety Tanveer, ; Wong, Language Achievement Measurement The background information questionnaire will also be asking for the results of two other English language examinations that have been taken by the students to get other measures of their language achievement.
To prevent the students from misunderstanding about the items in the questionnaire, they will be reminded to consult with the researcher who will be available at a fixed location during the distribution of the questionnaire as they responded to the questionnaire.
However, to predict whether students are affected by language anxiety in terms of their speaking skill, the questionnaire will be divided into three subscales which is communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation. The items in the subscale of communication apprehension are grouped together after two past researches Huang ; as cited in Cao, and Oda was juxtaposed to see their similarity in grouping the items from FLCAS to be included under the subscale of communication apprehension. Thus, from the comparison made between those two categorization, the researcher concluded to group item 1, 4, 9, 14, 18, 24, 27 and 29 as items in communication apprehension subscale for this study.
Language Anxiety Coping Strategies There are two ways on how the strategies in coping with language anxiety is obtained.
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Firstly, the eleven coping strategies of language anxiety listed by Hauck and Hurd ; as cited in Tanveer, was included in the background information questionnaire as item number 7. Students can tick any strategies listed that they felt they have used before but in order to choose the most important strategy, students will have to circle the number of the statement that they felt the strategy has effectively or brilliantly help them in alleviating language anxiety.
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The results gathered from this instrument is very treasured and unaffected response from English lecturers themselves. Instead of using interview method like other past researches would employ, the lecturers will not be stressed to spare their time from their busy daily routine to have a typical 30 to 40 minutes interview when they could answer the questionnaire in less time than that. Therefore, interview is replaced by the questionnaire of open-ended questions in this study.
Data collection techniques In order to conduct this correlational study, the researcher will be giving a one-page letter to the English lecturers and will be explaining the purpose of the study. The letter also will be inquiring about only the English lecturers who taught English and they are not in class session at the time of questionnaire distribution, will be selected to participate.
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In addition, the students will be informed by the researcher that their responses in this study will be completely voluntary, and all of their identities will be kept anonymous. Moreover, there will be no correct answers in the survey questionnaires. At the beginning, the students will be instructed to fill in the forms about their demographic information and general English learning experiences.
Seven items see Appendix A were included in this portion of the survey.
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These items included information of the student participants' age, gender, native language, English examinations results, language proficiency, opinion on the influence of language anxiety on language learning and the strategies they use to cope with language anxiety.
In the second part of the survey questionnaire, the researcher will be giving the student oral and written instructions and will be asking them to simply rate Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale on each item of the 33 statements see Appendix B on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 for "strongly disagree" to 5 for "strongly agree" indicating their perception of their level of language anxiety. The student participants chose the statement that identifies them the best based on the scale of strongly disagree to strongly agree with a single answer.
The lecturers will also be asked to suggest some strategies for the students to cope with their language anxiety.