Citation for research papers mla

The footnote style we demonstrate here is called Chicago style, defined by the University of Chicago. Chicago style is especially popular in historical research. When developing a historical explanation from multiple primary sources, using footnotes instead of inserting parenthetical information allows the reader to focus on the evidence instead of being distracted by the publication information about that evidence.


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  • APA (American Psychological Association).
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The footnotes can be consulted if someone wants to track down your source for further research. Please see More Notes on Chicago Style Footnotes for more information about how Chicago style is treated in this guide. All three of these styles have different conventions for how to refer to a source in the body of your paper. Discursive footnotes are also welcome in Chicago style, and many papers that use Chicago style footnotes will mix discursive footnotes with others that just give bibliographical information.

See Where to Cite for more information about this kind of footnote. You should check with your instructors about the style they want you to use. When in doubt, remember that the goal of your citations is to help a reader who wishes to consult your sources directly. Give enough information to make such retrieval easy. The examples below are correct, and can be relied on as guides for citing your sources.

For more information about each of these citation styles, see the websites listed below.

MLA Works Cited Page: Periodicals // Purdue Writing Lab

Although not officially linked to the authors of MLA, APA, or Chicago style, the following websites are from reputable colleges and offer discussions of the various styles that can supplement the advice in Writing at Yale. But Chicago style is actually very flexible, and offers writers a choice of several different formats. It even invites the mixing of formats, provided that the result is clear and consistent.

For instance, the fifteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style permits either footnotes or in-text citation styles; it provides information on in-text citation by page number like MLA style or by year of publication like APA style ; it even provides variations in footnote style, depending on whether or not the paper includes a full Bibliography at the end. Because the primary advantages of using footnotes are simplicity and concision, this guide describes only one variation of Chicago style: shortened footnotes in a paper that gives a full Bibliography.

What this means is that our examples of Chicago footnotes do not give full bibliographical information at the bottom of the page. Instead, our footnote examples give brief references that would be supplemented, at the end of the paper, with a full Bibliography. If your teacher tells you to use Chicago style, or footnotes, you should check to see if the shortened format is acceptable.

Unlike an MLA in-text citation, you must include all of the publication information in your works cited entries.

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

Luckily for you, we know where the commas go, and our citation maker will put them there for you. A works cited page is a comprehensive list of all the sources that directly contributed to your work — each entry links to the brief parenthetical citations in the main body of your work. Your works cited page should appear at the end of the main body of text on a separate page.

The title of the page should be neither italicized nor bold — it is simply center-aligned. Like the rest of your paper the list should be double-spaced, both between and within entries. As long as you clearly indicate all of your sources via both parenthetical citations and a works cited list, it is very unlikely that you will lose points for citing incorrectly. Works cited examples: Anderson, Benedict.

Autocite a Journal Article in MLA Format

Imagined Communities. Verso, Fox, Claire F. University of Minnesota Press, Sontag, Susan.

On Photography. Penguin, Racing against the clock? Accurately and easily cite any type of source in a heartbeat; whether it be a musical score, a work of art, or even a comic strip.

A Deeper Look at Citations

To format your research paper according to the guidelines: Set the margins to 1 inch or 2. Below is a list outlining the key ways in which the style has developed since previous editions. Titles of independent works such as books and periodicals are now italicized rather than underlined.

Listing URLs for web citations is now always encouraged. You no longer are required to list the place of publication for a source. You are no longer required to provide medium information in your citations e. The style guidelines now call for the inclusion of both volume and issue numbers in listings for journal articles.

Using this fast, accurate and accessible generator will give you more time to work on the content of your paper, so you can spend less time worrying about tedious references. To use the generator: Choose the type of source you would like to cite e. Create projects, add notes, cite directly from the browser and scan books' barcodes with a mobile app.

MLA Citation Generator. What is the MLA Format?

Franke, Damon. Modernist Heresies: British Literary History,